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Hypoxia Induces Selective Modifications to the Acetylome in the Brain of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

By January 26, 2018No Comments

Reversible protein acetylation is an important regulatory mechanism for modulating protein function. The cellular protein acetylome is in large part dictated by the cellular redox balance, and in particular [NAD+]. While the relationship between hypoxia, redox balance, energy charge and resulting mitochondrial dysfunction has been examined in the context of hypoxia-linked pathologies, little is known about the direct effects of decreases in environmental oxygen on reversible lysine acetylation, and the resulting modifications to mitochondrial metabolism. To address this knowledge gap, we exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 16 h of hypoxia (2.21 kPa) and quantified acetylation levels of 1220 proteins using whole-cell proteomics in samples of brain taken from normoxic and hypoxic zebrafish. In addition, we examined the effects of hypoxia on cytoplasmic and mitochondrial redox status, whole-cell energetics, the activity of the mitochondrial NAD+-dependent deacetylase SIRT3, and electron transport chain complex activities to determine if there is an association between hypoxia-induced metabolic disturbances, protein acetylation, and mitochondrial function. Our results (1) reveal several key changes in the acetylation status of proteins in the brain, primarily within the mitochondria; (2) show significant fluctuations in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial redox status within the brain during hypoxia exposure; and (3) provide evidence that lysine acetylation may be related to large changes in electron transport and ATP-synthase complex activities and adenylate status in zebrafish exposed to hypoxic stress. Together, these data provide new insights into the role of protein modifications in mitochondrial metabolism during hypoxia.