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Oncolytic Viruses as Engineering Platforms for Combination Immunotherapy

By May 7, 2018No Comments

To effectively build on the recent successes of immune checkpoint blockade, adoptive T cell therapy and cancer vaccines, it is critical to rationally design combination strategies that will increase and extend efficacy to a larger proportion of patients. For example, the combination of anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) immune checkpoint inhibitors essentially doubles the response rate in certain patients with metastatic melanoma. However, given the heterogeneity of cancer, it seems likely that even more complex combinations of immunomodulatory agents may be required to obtain consistent, durable therapeutic responses against a broad spectrum of cancers. This carries serious implications in terms of toxicities for patients, feasibility for care providers and costs for health-care systems. A compelling solution is offered by oncolytic viruses (OVs), which can be engineered to selectively replicate within and destroy tumour tissue while simultaneously augmenting antitumour immunity. In this Opinion article, we argue that the future of immunotherapy will include OVs that function as multiplexed immune-modulating platforms expressing factors such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, tumour antigens, cytokines and T cell engagers. We illustrate this concept by following the trials and tribulations of tumour-reactive T cells from their initial priming through to the execution of cytotoxic effector function in the tumour bed. We highlight the myriad opportunities for OVs to help overcome critical barriers in the T cell journey, leading to new synergistic mechanisms in the battle against cancer.