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CALCOCO2/NDP52 and SQSTM1/p62 Differentially Regulate Coxsackievirus B3 Propagation

By September 11, 2018No Comments

Cell autonomous immunity is the ability of individual cells to initiate a first line of host defense against invading microbes, such as viruses. Autophagy receptors, a diverse family of multivalent proteins, play a key role in this host response by detecting, sequestering, and eliminating virus in a process termed virophagy. To counteract this, positive-stranded RNA viruses, such as enteroviruses, have evolved strategies to circumvent the host autophagic machinery in an effort to promote viral propagation; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here we studied the interaction between coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and the autophagy receptor SQSTM1 (sequestosome 1)/p62 and CALCOCO2/NDP52 (calcium binding and coiled-coil domain-containing protein 2/nuclear dot 10 protein 52). We demonstrated that SQSTM1 and CALCOCO2 differentially regulate CVB3 infection. We showed that knockdown of SQSTM1 causes increased viral protein production and elevated viral titers, whereas depletion of CALCOCO2 results in a significant inhibition of viral growth. Both receptors appear to have a role in virophagy through direct interaction with the viral capsid protein VP1 that undergoes ubiquitination during infection. Further investigation of the proviral mechanism of CALCOCO2 revealed that CALCOCO2, but not SQSTM1, suppresses the antiviral type I interferon signaling by promoting autophagy-mediated degradation of the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein. Moreover, we demonstrated that viral proteinase 2A-mediated cleavage of SQSTM1 at glycine 241 impairs its capacity to associate with viral capsid, whereas cleavage of CALCOCO2 by viral proteinase 3C at glutamine 139, generates a stable C-terminal fragment that retains the proviral function of full-length CALCOCO2. Altogether, our study reveals a mechanism by which CVB3 targets selective autophagy receptors to evade host virophagy.