SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike antibody concentrations and angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) inhibition have been used as surrogates to live viral neutralizing antibody titers; however, validity among vaccinated individuals is unclear. We tested the correlation of these measures among vaccinated participants, and examined subgroups based on duration since vaccination and vaccine dosing intervals. We analyzed 120 samples from two-dose mRNA vaccinees without previous…
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Marburg virus (MARV) infection results in severe viral hemorrhagic fever with mortalities up to 90%, and there is a pressing need for effective therapies. Here, we established a small interfering RNA (siRNA) conjugate platform that enabled successful subcutaneous delivery of siRNAs targeting the MARV nucleoprotein. We identified a hexavalent mannose ligand with high affinity to macrophages and dendritic cells, which…
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For the past century, insulin injections have saved millions of lives, but glycemic instability is still a persistent challenge for people with diabetes, leading to tremendous morbidity and premature mortality. Research in the field of islet transplantation has demonstrated that replacing insulin-producing β-cells can restore euglycemia comparable to individuals without diabetes. However, a short supply of cadaveric islet donors, the…
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Dietary fibers are potent modulators of immune responses that can restrain inflammation in multiple disease contexts. However, dietary fibers encompass a biochemically diverse family of carbohydrates, and it remains unknown how individual fiber sources influence immunity. In a direct comparison of four different high-fiber diets, we demonstrate a potent ability of guar gum to delay disease and neuroinflammation in experimental…
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A Similarity Scaling Approach for Organ-on-Chip Devices

Organ-on-chip devices (OoCs) provide more nuanced insights into (patho)physiological processes of the human body than static tissue models, and are currently the most promising approach to emulating human (patho)physiology in vitro. OoC designs vary greatly and questions remain as to how to maximize biomimicry and clinical translatability of the in vitro findings. Scaling is critical, yet has largely been ad…
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can rapidly replicate in the hepatocytes after transmission, leading to chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Interferon-α (IFN-α) is included in the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, this therapy causes serious side effects. Delivering IFN-α selectively to the liver may enhance its efficacy and safety. Imiquimod (IMQ), a Toll-Like Receptor (TLR)…
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Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality and reduced quality of life globally. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) provide a personalized platform to study inherited heart diseases, drug-induced cardiac toxicity, and cardiac regenerative therapy. However, the immaturity of CMs obtained by current strategies is a major hurdle in utilizing hiPSC-CMs at their fullest potential. Here, the major…
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Anti–epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies are effective treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer. Improved understanding of acquired resistance mechanisms may facilitate circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) monitoring, anti-EGFR rechallenge, and combinatorial strategies to delay resistance. Patients with treatment-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (n = 169) enrolled on the CO.26 trial had pre–anti-EGFR tissue whole-exome sequencing (WES) compared with baseline and week 8…
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Given the promising results from phase 1/2 clinical trials of therapy involving regulatory T cells (Tregs), it is critical to develop Treg manufacturing methods that use well-defined reagents. Seeking to maximize expansion of human thymic Tregs activated with anti-CD3/CD28 antibody-coated beads and cultured in serum-free medium, the authors investigated the effect of adjusting process parameters including cell density and cell…
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Tissue development and regeneration rely on the cooperation of multiple mesenchymal progenitor (MP) subpopulations. We recently identified Hic1 as a marker of quiescent MPs in multiple adult tissues. Here, we describe the embryonic origin of appendicular Hic1+ MPs and demonstrate that they arise in the hypaxial somite, and migrate into the developing limb at embryonic day 11.5, well after limb bud initiation. Time-resolved…
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