Remote Regulation of Type 2 Immunity by Intestinal Parasites

The intestinal tract is the target organ of most parasitic infections, including those by helminths and protozoa. These parasites elicit prototypical type 2 immune activation in the host’s immune system with striking impact on the local tissue microenvironment. Despite local containment of these parasites within the intestinal tract, parasitic infections also mediate immune adaptation in peripheral organs. In this review,…
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“Symbiosis” means “living together”: sometimes the outcome of host-microbe associations is pathogenic, while in other cases both the host and microbe benefit. The Haney Lab is broadly interested in how bacteria co-exist with plants and animals, and the factors that affect whether the interaction is beneficial or harmful for the host. We study bacteria in the genus Pseudomonas, which includes human and plant pathogens (i.e. P. aeruginosa and P. syringae respectively) and animal and plant commensals (i.e. P. fluorescens).
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The COVID19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has infected more than 200 million people worldwide. Due to the rapid spreading of SARS-CoV-2 and its impact, it is paramount to find effective treatments against it. Human neutralizing antibodies are an effective method to fight viral infection. However, the recent discovery of new strains that substantially change the S-protein sequence has raised concern…
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The Brumer group focusses on the dissection of the molecular systems in our symbiotic gut bacteria that a responsible for the metabolism of complex carbohydrates in dietary fiber. This publication provides insight into how individual carbohydrate-active enzymes and carbohydrate-binding proteins in the human gut microbiota have evolved to recognize specific polysaccharides and break them down into simpler sugars for growth.
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The gut microbiome is a diverse network of bacteria which inhabit our digestive tract and is crucial for efficient cellular metabolism, nutrient absorption, and immune system development. Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts autonomic function below the level of injury and can alter the composition of the gut microbiome. Studies in rodent models have shown that SCI-induced bacterial imbalances in the…
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During pancreas development, endocrine progenitors differentiate into the islet cell subtypes, which undergo further functional maturation in postnatal islet development. In islet β-cells, genes involved in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion are activated, and glucose exposure increases the insulin response as β-cells mature. We investigated the role of H3K4 trimethylation in endocrine cell differentiation and functional maturation by disrupting TrxG complex histone…
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Sex differences in whole-body fat storage exist in many species. For example, Drosophila females store more fat than males. Yet, the mechanisms underlying this sex difference in fat storage remain incompletely understood. Here, we identify a key role for sex determination gene transformer (tra) in regulating the male-female difference in fat storage. Normally, a functional Tra protein is present only in females, where it…
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In addition to genetic predisposition, environmental determinants contribute to a complex etiology leading to onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Multiple studies have established the gut as an important site for immune modulation that can directly impact development of autoreactive cell populations against pancreatic self-antigens. Significant efforts have been made to unravel how changes in the microbiome function as a…
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Dr. Jacobson’s and Dr. Vallance’s labs are focusing on the role of the epithelial barrier in intestinal inflammatory disease and potential modifiers, including diet, enteric pathogens and enteric neuropeptides. As a senior research associate, Dr. Hongbing Yu is branching into a new research field where immune cells mediate the interaction between neuropeptides and epithelial cells. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells enriched in the gut mediate host resistance against intestinal pathogens.
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The main viral protease (3CLpro) is indispensable for SARS-CoV-2 replication. We delineate the human protein substrate landscape of 3CLpro by TAILS substrate-targeted N-terminomics. We identify more than 100 substrates in human lung and kidney cells supported by analyses of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells. Enzyme kinetics and molecular docking simulations of 3CLpro engaging substrates reveal how noncanonical cleavage sites, which diverge from SARS-CoV, guide substrate…
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