Huntington disease (HD), a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder, manifests as progressively impaired movement and cognition. Although early abnormalities of neuronal activity in striatum are well established in HD models, there are fewer in vivo studies of the cortex. Here, we record local field potentials (LFPs) in YAC128 HD model mice versus wild-type mice. In multiple cortical areas, limb sensory stimulation evokes a greater change in LFP power in YAC128 mice. Mesoscopic imaging…
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Hundreds of genes have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. Previous studies have indicated that some phenotypes caused by decreased developmental function of select risk genes can be reversed by restoring gene function in adulthood. However, very few risk genes have been assessed for adult reversibility. We developed a strategy to rapidly assess the temporal requirements and phenotypic reversibility of neurodevelopmental…
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PRAME is a prominent member of the cancer germline antigen family of proteins, which triggers autologous T-cell mediated immune responses. Integrative genomic analysis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) uncovered recurrent, and highly focal deletions of 22q11.22 including the PRAME gene, which were associated with poor outcome. PRAME-deleted tumors showed cytotoxic T-cell immune escape and were associated with cold tumor microenvironments. In addition,…
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Cysteine, a thiol-containing amino acid, is crucial for the synthesis of sulfur-containing biomolecules that control multiple essential cellular activities. Altered cysteine metabolism has been linked to numerous driver oncoproteins and tumor suppressors, as well as to malignant traits in cancer. Cysteine can be acquired from extracellular sources or synthesized de novo via the transsulfuration (TSS) pathway. Limited availability of cystine in tumor…
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The objective was to examine if the gut microbiota composition changes across repeated samples in paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) or monophasic-acquired demyelinating syndromes (monoADS). A total of 36 individuals (18 MS/18 monoADS) with ⩾2 stool samples were included. Stool sample-derived DNA was sequenced. Alpha/beta diversities and genus-level taxa were analysed. Mean ages at first sample procurement (MS/monoADS) = 18.0/13.8 years. Median time (months)…
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Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes) in the Gut Microbiome

The 1013–1014 microorganisms present in the human gut (collectively known as the human gut microbiota) dedicate substantial percentages of their genomes to the degradation and uptake of carbohydrates, indicating the importance of this class of molecules. Carbohydrates function not only as a carbon source for these bacteria but also as a means of attachment to the host, and a barrier to…
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The response to insufficient oxygen (hypoxia) is orchestrated by the conserved hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). However, HIF-independent hypoxia response pathways exist that act in parallel with HIF to mediate the physiological hypoxia response. Here, we describe a hypoxia response pathway controlled by Caenorhabditis elegans nuclear hormone receptor NHR-49, an orthologue of mammalian peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). We show that nhr-49 is required for animal…
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Spinal cord injury chronically alters cardiac structure and function and is associated with increased odds for cardiovascular disease. Here, we investigate the cardiac consequences of spinal cord injury on the acute-to-chronic continuum, and the contribution of altered bulbospinal sympathetic control to the decline in cardiac function following spinal cord injury. By combining experimental rat models of spinal cord injury with…
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Age-Associated B Cells in Viral Infection

Age-associated B cells (ABCs) are a recently identified, unique B cell population that displays both protective and pathogenic characteristics, depending on the context. A major role of ABCs is to protect from viral infection. ABCs expand during an array of viral infections and display various functional capacities, including secretion of antibodies and activation of T cells. Following resolution of infection,…
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Targeting Autophagy in Prostate Cancer: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence for Therapeutic Response

Prostate cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and new estimates revealed prostate cancer as the leading cause of death in men in 2021. Therefore, new strategies are pertinent in the treatment of this malignant disease. Macroautophagy/autophagy is a “self-degradation” mechanism capable of facilitating the turnover of long-lived and toxic macromolecules and organelles. Recently, attention has been drawn towards…
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