Signaling by the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) initiates actin remodeling. The assembly of branched actin networks that are nucleated by the Arp2/3 complex exert outward force on the plasma membrane, allowing B cells to form membrane protrusions that can scan the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The resulting Arp2/3 complex-dependent actin retrograde flow promotes the centripetal movement and progressive…
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A long-term of peritoneal dialysis (PD) using a hypertonic PD solution (PDS) leads to patient’s peritoneal membrane (PM) injury, resulting in ultrafiltration failure (UFF) and PD drop-out. Our previous study shows that PD effluent-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (pMSCs) prevent the PM injury in normal rats after repeated exposure of the peritoneal cavity to a PDS. This study was designed to…
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ER-plasma membrane (PM) contacts are proposed to be held together by distinct families of tethering proteins, which in yeast include the VAP homologues Scs2/22, the extended-synaptotagmin homologues Tcb1/2/3, and the TMEM16 homologue Ist2. It is unclear whether these tethers act redundantly or whether individual tethers have specific functions at contacts. Here, we show that Ist2 directly recruits the phosphatidylserine (PS)…
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The placenta is vital to embryonic development and requires a finely-tuned pattern of gene expression, achieved in part by its unique epigenetic landscape. Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a class of small-non-coding RNA with established roles as epigenetic regulators of gene expression, largely via methylation of targeted DNA sequences. The expression of piRNAs have mainly been described in germ cells, but…
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Breast cancer heterogeneity has made it challenging to identify mechanisms critical to the initial stages of their genesis in vivo. Here, we sought to interrogate the role of YB-1 in newly arising human breast cancers as well as in established cell lines. In a first series of experiments, we found that short-hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of YB-1 in MDA-MB-231 cells blocked…
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Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) is a lethal subtype of prostate cancer. NEPC arises de novo only rarely; the disease predominantly develops from adenocarcinoma in response to drug-induced androgen receptor signalling inhibition, although the mechanisms behind this transdifferentiation are a subject of debate. The survival of patients with NEPC is poor, and few effective treatment options are available. To improve clinical…
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There are two main areas of focus of Dr. Aly Karsan's lab: The first is to understand the mechanisms of resistance and relapse in myeloid cancers, and find ways to target or bypass these resistance mechanisms; the second is to design and validate next-generation sequencing (NGS) assays that can be delivered to the clinic, as demonstrated by the current paper.
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Recent advancements in cellular engineering, including reprogramming of somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells, have opened the door to a new era of regenerative medicine. Given that cellular decisions are guided by microenvironmental cues, such as secreted factors and interactions with neighbouring cells, reproducible cell manufacturing requires robust control over cell–cell interactions. Cell competition has recently emerged as a previously unknown interaction…
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his week we profile a recent publication in Current Biology from the lab of Dr. Michael Gordon at UBC with first author Dr. Molly Stanley. Their lab uses the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to study the neural circuits underlying taste processing and feeding control. They are interested in how chemicals are detected and encoded by taste sensory neurons, how the information from those neurons is processed in the brain, how satiety influences feeding circuits, and how taste responses change following experience.
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As a potent autocrine regulator, the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL6) is expressed in granulosa cells and follicular fluid and is involved in the modulation of various follicular functions, including follicular development and ovulation. At present, the detailed molecular mechanisms by which IL6 regulates the event of ovulation remain to be elucidated. In the present study, primary and immortalized (SVOG)…
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